woensdag, januari 02, 2008

Ol' jeudenboudel

Dit is de vader van Ischa. Ik kende Jaap Meijer al als dichter, alleen wist ik niet dat hij het was. Onder het pseudoniem Saul van Messel publiceerde hij een groot aantal gedichten, de meeste in het Gronings. Nu lees ik het eerste deel van de tot nog toe prachtige monografie over Jaap en Ischa Meijer van Evelien Gans. Het is een geschiedenis van het Jodendom in de twintigste eeuw, samengevat in het leven van een vader en zoon die niet met en niet zonder elkaar konden.
Het verhaal van Jaap Meijer begint in Winschoten en Oude Pekela, waar door iedereen alleen Gronings gesproken werd, en daarmee begint het ook een beetje met mezelf. Mijn moeder vertelt nog af en toe hoe mijn opa, haar vader, aan tafel uit de bijbel las en niet uit een moeilijke Nederlandse passage kon komen. Hij klapte het boek dicht en zei: "Ach, vot toch ook mit dei ol' jeudenboudel!" (Weg met dat oude jodengedoe). Wij moesten daar altijd om lachen. Gans beschrijft in haar boek een aantal pejoratieve uitdrukkingen in het Gronings waarin het woord 'Jeud' de hoofdrol speelt. Er is in het dialect van mijn ouders een mate van antisemitisme waarvan je je kunt afvragen hoe verstild die is. Er zit iets merkwaardigs in het feit dat de Groningse joden 'anders' waren door hun 'vreemde' religieuze praktijken en tegelijkertijd alleen dialect spraken, zij het met jiddische aanvullingen. Het bracht Jaap Meijer, in de persoon van Saul van Messel, tot het volgende:

As wie ons aigen doagn
van de kelender scheurn
wos ik as kind al
dat wie hier nait heurn

De joodse feestdagen stonden er niet op, op de kalender. En dat ze er niet bij horen wordt geconstateerd in het dialect. Schuldig of onschuldig antisemitisme. Onschuldig? Hoeveel joden verdwenen er vanuit hun bloedeigen (sic!) Groningen naar het oosten? In verhouding tot andere provincies? Ik weet het niet.
Ik moet opeens denken aan een liedje dat wij al op de lagere school zongen, toen we niet ouder waren dan een jaar of tien: "Allah is groot, Allah is machtig. Hij heeft een lul van tien meter tachtig." Dat is lang hoor. Respect, maar niet heus. Hoeveel 'kutmarokkanen' spreken er onvervalst Amsterdams?

29 Comments:

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Ik denk niet dat het Gronings antisemitischer is/was dan andere streektalen. De taal van Winschoten zeker niet, die was immers doorspekt met jiddisch - ene meneer Potjewijd gaf daar in een regionaal-historisch boek van zijn hand een lange woordenlijst van.

Hoeveel joden er uit de provincie Groningen vermoord zijn weet ik niet, ik kon in de gauwigheid alleen de cijfers voor de stad Groningen vinden:
"In januari 1941 telt Groningen 2.850 Joodse inwoners, gemengd-gehuwde Joden en hun kinderen niet meegerekend (...). In 1945 zijn plm. 120 Joodse inwoners naar Groningen teruggekeerd. Bij de Volkstelling in 1947 geven 202 personen op dat zij Joods zijn (0.2 %)."
http://www.grunn.nl/historie/uitgebreid/?action=view&pid=9#54

Zoals Jaap Meijer eens zei was er voor de oorlog eigenlijk al geen joods leven meer. De Groningse joden waren tamelijk geïntegreerd. Zie de dissertatie van Stefan van der Poel:
"Na 1900 was het traditionele joodse leven sterk aan het afbrokkelen. De ‘sjoel’ werd steeds minder bezocht, de spijswetten slechts door een minderheid nog nageleefd, de kennis van het Hebreeuws holde achteruit en ‘gemengde’ huwelijken vormden niet langer een uitzondering. Met de Verlichting was zo een integratieproces in gang gezet waarbij de joodse gemeenschap langzaam maar zeker fragmenteerde. Het is zelfs de vraag of men vanaf 1900 nog wel van een gemeenschap kan spreken, het joodse leven was immers sterk gefragmenteerd. "
http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/faculties/arts/2004/s.van.der.poel/
(Onderaan de pagina vind je de hoofdstuk-pdf's)

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